Lactococcus Garvieae in Urine Culture Susceptibility, Gram stain, Treatment

When it comes to urinary tract infections (UTIs), popular bacterial pathogen such as Escherichia coli normally get the most attention. However, a less well-known pathogen named Lactococcus garvieae has received more attention in recent years. Despite being typically associated with diseases in fish and dairy products, this bacterium has been increasingly found in human urine cultures. 

    What is Lactococcus Garvieae?

    Lactococcus garvieae is a Gram-positive bacteria. Its native habitat is mainly comprised of aquatic settings, where it is known to infect certain fish species. However, in recent years it has become more prevalent in humans as an opportunistic pathogen, especially in urinary tract infections.

    Lactococcus Garvieae in Urine Culture Susceptibility, Gram stain, Treatment

    Lactococcus Garvieae in Urine Culture

    Because of its low incidence and similarities to other Gram-positive cocci, Lactococcus garvieae can be difficult to identify in urine cultures. However, developments in microbiological techniques, like as matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), have heightened the precision of identification.


    Certain variables can raise the risk of Lactococcus garvieae infections in people. These might include:

    Underlying Health Conditions

    Infections with Lactococcus garvieae may be more common in people with weakened immune systems or pre-existing abnormalities of the urinary tract.

    Consumption of fish

    Some documented cases of Lactococcus garvieae UTIs have been connected to the consumption of contaminated fish or raw shellfish.

    Lactococcus garvieae UTIs frequently present with typical UTI symptoms such as:

    • Urination that is both painful and frequent
    • Patients may feel a burning feeling during urination and the need to urinate more frequently than normal.
    • Urine with a cloudy or bloody tint
    • A urinary tract infection may be indicated by murky or bloody urine.
    • Pelvic Discomfort

    Some people may feel slight to moderate pelvic pressure or discomfort.

    Susceptibility Testing

    Lactococcus garvieae antibiotic susceptibility must be determined in order to recommend suitable treatment. The selection of the best antibiotic therapy is difficult for clinicians because standardized susceptibility testing procedures have not yet been developed. 

    However, there are a few findings indicating the susceptibility of L. garvieae to particular antibiotics:

    The susceptibility of 47 L. garvieae isolates to 17 antibiotics was evaluated in a study, and no strains were resistant to the commonly used -lactam antibiotics.

    Gram Stain

    Gram staining, a useful diagnostic technique, is used to divide bacteria into Gram-positive and Gram-negative groups. The crystal violet stain is retained by the Gram-positive Lactococcus garvieae, making it appear purple when seen under a microscope.


    It can be difficult to choose the right treatment because there is little information available about Lactococcus garvieae infections. The following antibiotics, however, have demonstrated potential usefulness in treating these infections:

    Penicillin and Ampicillin

    Lactococcus garvieae is susceptible to penicillin and ampicillin, making them viable therapy options.


    Vancomycin may be an alternative to penicillin in cases of allergy or resistance.


    Lactococcus garvieae may be susceptible to the effects of macrolides like erythromycin.


    The main ways to avoid getting UTIs from Lactococcus garvieae are through excellent cleanliness and food safety practices. The risk of illness can be considerably decreased by thoroughly cooking seafood and avoiding the eating of raw or undercooked fish.

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