Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Infection, Symptoms, Treatment, Gram stain, ICD-10

A rare but fast-spreading worldwide opportunistic pathogen, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is an aerobic, nonfermentative, resistant to several drugs Gram-negative bacteria. It is most frequently linked to respiratory infections in humans and can lead to serious conditions, particularly in those with weakened immune systems. The management of infections induced by S. maltophilia can be challenging due to its inherent resistance to multiple drugs and the limited range of antibiotics that are effective against it.

    Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Infection

    Patients with compromised immune systems are frequently infected with the inherently multidrug-resistant bacteria Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. It is a newly discovered worldwide opportunistic pathogen that is frequently linked to respiratory conditions in individuals. Due to its high fatality-to-case ratio, S. maltophilia poses a specific threat to individuals with compromised immune systems.

    Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Infection, Symptoms, Treatment, Gram stain, ICD-10

    Concern should be expressed about S. maltophilia's rising frequency in nosocomial and community-acquired infections, as it can result in serious infections in those who are vulnerable. When the host is highly damaged, the infection is frequently linked to a high mortality rate. 

    Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Infection Symptoms

    The location of a S. maltophilia infection influences the symptoms that are experienced. Typical signs of lung infections consist of:

    • Mucus-filled cough
    • Breathing difficulties
    • High temperature

    Additional signs and symptoms could be:

    • Expectoration, or producing mucous,
    • Chest ache
    • Breathlessness, or dyspnea

    Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Infection Treatment

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia infection is commonly managed with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX), the drug of choice at present. The organism is typically responsive to ceftazidime, doxycycline, minocycline, or respiratory quinolones if TMP-SMZ cannot be utilized. Tigecycline may be useful, but further clinical research is required. It is noteworthy that S. maltophilia typically exhibits resistance to cephalosporins, aminoglycosides, and antipseudomonal penicillins. 

    Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia Gram Stain

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is classified as a gram-negative bacterium; its Gram staining can be observed under a microscope as a pink or scarlet color, providing further confirmation of its Gram-negative nature. This bacteria is well-known for its resistance to multiple drugs and for being linked to a number of different human infections.  

    Gram Staining Process

    • In order to visualize the peptidoglycan layer of bacterial cell walls, apply crystal violet as the primary stain.
    • To improve the retention of crystal violet by bacterial cells, add iodine solution. Iodine and crystal violet form a combination.
    • Ethanol functions as a decolorizer, facilitating the differentiation of Gram-positive bacteria from Gram-negative bacteria during rinsing.
    • Safranin counterstaining imparts a pink color to Gram-negative bacteria, which absorb the stain.

    ICD-10 Code Stenotrophomonas Maltophilia

    Stenotrophomonas maltophilia has the ICD-10-CM code B96.89. It is essential to keep in mind that this code can also be used for other designated bacterial agents and is not limited to Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Another ICD-10-CM code that may be applicable is J15.6, which is used for pneumonia caused by different Gram-negative bacteria. Stenotrophomonas and other non-fermenting organisms that have acquired resistance to specific antibiotics are also classified under ICD-10 code U81.6.

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